AP Gov. Blog # 11

Posted by JOANNA BLUME on 3/21/2022

This week we will conclude our study of civil liberties and civil rights. We have learned that civil liberties are basic human rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Bill of Rights and beyond.  We have also learned that civil rights is the entitlement to equality and fairness to all people regardless of their race, gender, age etc. Many groups historically and currently have engaged in a series of struggles to embrace and protect their rights. Constitutional amendments, executive orders, and countless laws and policies have been passed to help guarantee equality for all.  One such policy example would be affirmative action programs established by government to redress discrimination in the work place. Affirmative action programs were initially introduced by President Kennedy in 1961, but have since dwindled due to the fact that many consider such programs to be an example of reverse discrimination. For this weeks blog I would like for us to learn more about affirmative action programs and consider whether or not such programs are an effective way to prevent discrimination on the work palce. Click on each of the links below and read about affirmative action programs and then respond to the following questions:


  1. What are affirmative action programs?
  2. Is affirmative action best administered according to the degree of inequity? If so, which groups should come first?
  3. Many argue these programs are a form of reverse discrimination, how would you respond to this assretion?
  4. After reading both Court cases, summarize the Court’s position regarding affirmative action in relation to the college admissions process. Explain whether or not you agree or disagree with their position.



Affirmative Action


 Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)


University of Michigan Law School in Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)